Homeschooling and Unschooling Resources

Keep scrolling down to find the information you want; this is a huge page.

Homeschooling Young Children

Children are born learning—there's considerable proof they even learn to recognize voices while in the womb. No one must teach a healthy child to walk, talk, and socialize and no one thought to do so until modern times. Why mess with success? Yet we do—How To Teach Your Baby To Talk programs and their ilk continue to appear, as if children can't learn their Mother Tongue without a professional mediator or will learn better with one. Such are the fears of educated people!

You don't need to unschool children not old enough to fall under the compulsory schooling law because they're doing it naturally. Watch and appreciate your children's learning and growth during these amazing years and you'll see for yourself how much genuine, important learning occurs just by your child's engagement with the world and the people they meet in it.

GWS magazine is full of such stories, as is the work of John Holt and others noted throughout this site. I want to note these research studies, however, because they can be particularly good to overcome skepticism about children's abilities to learn, particularly among educators (isn't that a sad irony?). The first is a study, Young Children Learning, that quantifies and analyzes the depth and effectiveness of children's conversations at home and at school that "reveals the richness of the home as a learning environment and shows how much children can learn through the ordinary conversations of everyday life."

Young Children Learning by Barbara Tizard and Martin Hughes (Harvard University Press, 1984; 2003). Turns upside-down the commonly held belief that professionals know better than working-class parents how to educate and bring up children.

The double-edged sword of pedagogy: Instruction limits spontaneous exploration and discovery. Research from MIT published in Cognition, 2010. A study that finds "children restrict their exploration both after direct instruction to themselves and after overhearing direct instruction given to another child; they do not show this constraint after observing direct instruction given to an adult or after observing a non-pedagogical intentional action." In other words, exactly as John Holt observed in 1964 in his classroom, kids' curiosity and drive are dampened by unasked-for teaching.

Read More on This Topic by Pat Farenga

Young Children as Research Scientists

In Praise of Good-Enough Parenting

New Research Supports John Holt's Views About Learning

Unschooling Children: The Elementary Years

Most homeschooling/unschooling occurs for families with children in grades K–8, with the largest segment being middle school (grades 5–8). Here are some ideas about what you can do with your children at home and in your community, as well as ideas for working with your children instead of working on them to help them learn. Being a responsive parent is far more important to unschooling success than trying to become a professional teacher for your children.

Below are some recommendations for examining common topics that come up in homeschooling. You'll find many more stories just by browsing the GWS Issue Archives and GWS Selected Stories.

Am I Doing Enough at Home with My Children?

Here are some curriculum guides for you to see what professional educators demand from their students on an annual basis. You will probably find that even though you're not following a standardized curriculum, the unique curriculum you are making with your family actually covers much of the same material. Further, you may find your children are at the same level or ahead in some areas of the standard curriculum and behind in others—just like most children in school.

Not only do you have the ability to remediate those areas in the future (as in school), you can choose to address those areas later, ignore them if they are irrelevant to your children's needs, or approach them in an interdisciplinary fashion through projects. It is your home, your school, and you can co-create the curriculum with your children as your learn and grow together, so focus on what your children want to learn now, regardless of what the school curriculum says.

GWS has lots of stories about how families create their own curricula over time, but here are some standard curricula for you to check out and, hopefully, put your mind at ease that you and your children are "doing enough."

You can also find local charter and private schools that use different scopes and sequences for learning in their schools. Contact them and see if they'll provide a curriculum outline for your child's age to you or research their curricula online:

  • Montessori Schools

  • Steiner/Waldorf Schools

  • Independent/Alternative Schools

  • Christian/Jewish/Muslim Schools

  • Reggio Emilia Schools

Read More on This Topic by Pat Farenga

Less Play + Less Empathy + More Narcissism = Today’s Society

Deep and Personal: Two Parents Write about Becoming Unschoolers

Common Core Curriculum Doesn't Keep Up With the Real World


How Children Learn Through Play

Learning Through Fantasy Play, in GWS 64.

Read More on This Topic by Pat Farenga

The Power of Play and How We Ruin It for Children

Back to Playing, Not Back to School

School Vacation Week Advice: Do Nothing!

Books and articles about the deep value of play for children

American Journal of Play, Spring 2011. A special edition devoted to children's free play and edited by Peter Gray.

Child's Work: Taking Children's Choices Seriously by Nancy Wallace

Free at Last by Dan Greenberg and Mimsy Sadofsky. The work and philosophy behind the Sudbury Valley School.

Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life by Peter Gray (2013). An amazing presentation of hunter-gatherer cultures and how people are adapting many of these ideas for modern use in school and home.

Home Grown: Adventures in Parenting off the Beaten Path, Unschooling, and Reconnecting with the Natural World, by Ben Hewitt. A beautifully written book about homesteading in VT, raising boys whose passion is exploring nature and trapping animals, and how this family used unschooling to make it all work.

How Children Learn (revised edition) by John Holt. Has great chapters on games, play, and fantasy, and how children use play to get into the world, not out of it.

Peter Gray's Freeedom to Learn blog for Psychology Today magazine.

The Self-Respecting Child by Alison Stallibrass. Foreword by John Holt.

On Older Readers

Growing Without Schooling published many stories about children—most often boys—who, if not compelled, do not learn to read until they are older than their schooled peers. However, anecdotal and research evidence shows that when children learn to read when they decide to, they quickly get up to speed (it takes months, not years to learn to read when motivated) and they are more likely to continue reading for pleasure and information as adults.

Articles about older readers from the GWS Archives:

GWS 44: "Starting to read at 12"; "Understanding When He Needs To"

GWS 55: "2 Hours of Tutoring"; "Stress of Early School"; "School Hurts Reading"; "Reading at 1 0"; "Another Older Reader;" "Not Yet Reading at 8."

GWS 76: "Overcame Difficulty"; "Poor Reader Loves to Read"; "Learning at 10"; Concentrating on Two Things"; "Outside Pressures."

GWS 77: "Feeling OK About Being An Older Reader"; "Older Readers."

GWS 91: "Reading at 10 and 11"

Academic Books that Discuss Older Readers and Present Reading as a Pleasure for Life, Not a Race Done for School

Rethinking Learning to Read is the latest book to explore how homeschoolers learn to read using different schedules and techniques (leaving children alone to read is one!) than school permits.

Better Late Than Early: A New Approach to Your Child's Education
By Raymond S. Moore, Dennis R. Moore, Dorothy N. Moore

Responding to Children's Thoughts and Ideas

Don't destroy your time with your children by seeking to use every good experience you have together as a "teachable moment." Take the time to savor and enjoy your children's crazy ideas, wild stories, funny theories, and observations about people and soon you will learn how you can best help them learn because they are telling you all the time—don't diminish communication with your child as happens in school, nurture it instead.

An interview with philosopher Gareth Matthews about responding to children's thoughts is in GWS 75.

Books about Responding to Children's Thoughts and Ideas:

How Children Learn at Home
By Alan Thomas, Harriet Pattison

On Math for Children

Articles about math are strewn throughout the GWS Archives.
GWS 79
has a feature story about Enjoying Math.

Unschooling Math by Susannah Sheffer is a collection of stories from GWS.

Books about Math for Children

Anchor Math by Leslie Hart

Arithmetic the Easy Way by Edward Williams

Elementary Algebra by Harold Jacobs

The I Hate Math Book by Linda Alison

Math by Kids by Susan Richman

The Math Kit: A Three-Dimensional Tour Through Mathematics by Ron Van Der Meer & Bob Gardner

A Mathematical Mystery Tour by Mark Wahl

Mathematics: A Human Endeavor by Harold Jacobs

On Academic Testing for Children

GWS 57 has a feature on Testing and the group FairTest.

Books against Academic Testing for Children

Punished by Rewards: The Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A's, Praise, and Other Bribes by Alife Kohn.

What Children Learning at Home and in Their Community Do Instead of School Work

Earning Our Own Money_Front cover_5.jpg

Earning Our Own Money: Homeschoolers 13 and under tell their stories.

The illustrations in this booklet are by 13-year-old Emily Linn, who also writes about how she earned money by giving harp lessons.

Unschooling Teenagers

This page will help you learn about options for high school and college for teenagers who aren't enrolled in conventional school.

NOTE: Please send me suggestions for additions or corrections to all the listings you see. I appreciate your help! 

Teens can continue to learn as they did when they were younger—by following their interests, developing their abilities through a variety of activities and experiences, and by engaging with adults, teachers, or peers in order to learn and grow. You don't have to acquiesce to the standard high school curriculum for your child to succeed as an adult. Businesses, colleges, and universities look favorably upon self-motivated people who want to learn and who make the most of the resources available to them, and unschooling provides the conditions for making this happen.

Here are a variety people recounting their experiences as teens and parents of teens learning outside of conventional schooling.

• The GWS Issue Archives contain many stories about teens, high school, college, and work that you will find useful. Take the time to search and learn from the experiences of many unschoolers over a 24-year period.

Grown Homeschoolers Tell Their Stories About How They Learned and What They Do Now.

• Peter Kowalke's documentary Grown Without Schooling.

Places for Teens Besides
High School

 North Star: Self-Directed Learning for Teens

The Purple Thistle Center

Unschool Adventures

Books About or with Good Chapters About Unschooling Teenagers

Albert, David. Homeschooling And the Voyage of Self-Discovery. Common Courage Press, 2003.

Boles, Blake. The Art of Self-Directed Learning. Tells Peak Press, 2014.

Cohen, Cafi. Homeschooling The Teen Years. Prima, 2000.

Colfax, David and Colfax, Micki. Homeschooling For Excellence. Warner, 1988.

——. Hard Times In Paradise: An American Family’s Struggle to Carve Out a Homestead in California’s Redwood Mountains. Warner, 1992.

Dobson, Linda. The Homeschooling Book of Answers. Prima, 2002.   

——. Homeschooler’s Success Stories: 15 Adults and 12 Young People Share the Impact That Homeschooling Has Made on Their Lives. Prima, 2000.

Hailey, Kendall. The Day I Became An Autodidact. Delta, 1988.

Hern, Matt, ed. Deschooling Our Lives. New Society Publishers, 1996.

Llewellyn, Grace, and Silver, Amy. Guerilla Learning: How to give your kids a real education with or without school. John Wiley & Sons, 2001.

Llewellyn, Grace. Freedom Challenge: African-American Homeschoolers. Lowry House, 1996.

——. Real Lives: Eleven Teenagers Who Don’t Go To School Tell Their Own Stories. Lowry House, 1993.

——. The Teenage Liberation Handbook: How to quit school and get a real life and education. Lowry House, 1998

McKee, Alison. Homeschooling Our Children, Unschooling Ourselves. Bittersweet House, 2002. 

Patterson, Sue. Homeschooled Teens. 2nd Tier Publishing, 2015.

How to Earn a High School Diploma

Correspondence, Online , and Independent Study High School Programs

There are many more such schools throughout the country. Any search engine will turn them up; be sure to search under “Distance Learning Programs” as well as “Homeschooling High School.” Also, most homeschooling books that cover teenagers also list Internet resources for learning high school subjects. These are one’s I’ve known people to use successfully.—PF

Brigham Young University Independent Study
High School Transcript Programs
206 Harman Building
PO Box 21514
Provo, UT 84602

Whitmore School Online High School
Since 1994, this online school provides an accredited online high school diploma program and courses.

Princeton Review
An unconventional standardized test preparation service.

Schools that Do Not Use SAT/ACT Scores for Admissions 
A list by, updated in Summer 2013. 

University of Missouri
Center for Distance and Independent Study

136 Clark Hall
Columbia, MO 65211-4200

University of Nebraska – Lincoln
Independent Study High School

269 Hardin Center
Lincoln, NE 68583-9400

Testing to Receive a High School Diploma:
GED Testing Service
NOTE: The GED is now a privately operated business and is much more expensive. From their website: "GED Testing Service is a joint venture between Pearson and the American Council on Education (ACE)."

Testing to Receive College Credit for Courses:

American College Testing – Proficiency Examination Program (ACT – PEP examinations)
Box 168
Iowa City, IA 52243
NY State residents should contact: Regents College Examinations, Albany, NY 12230.

College Level Examination Program (CLEP)
PO Box 6600
Princeton, NJ 08541-6600

CLEP Official Study Guide 2013  (Official Study Guide for the CLEP Examinations). College Board, 2013.

Standardized Testing for College
Covers the PSAT (usually taken in Oct. of sophomore or junior year), the SAT I, SAT II, AP, and CLEP practice tests available online.

Earning College Credit for What You Already Know

Earn College Credit with Prior Learning Assessments
A Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) evaluates and awards credit based on a student's experiences and knowledge developed through "careers, employer training programs, military service, independent study or community service."

Thomas Edison State College
A good place to go if you need to turn your learning into a credential for use with work or school. The New York Times profiled this college in 2013.
This article, Guide to Earning Credit before College, contains information and links to various resources about transcript services, competency-based testing, learning portfolios, and college credit for high school students.

Opportunities and Activities for Teenagers
Not in School

AFS InterNational Exchange Program, 71 West 23rd St. 17th floor New York, NY 10010, 212-807-8686, 800-AFS-INFO. Fax: 503-241-1653

Alliance for Self-Directed Education Teen Forum. You need to become a member of ASDE—it is free—before you can participate in the forum. The moderator writes, "This is the only ASDE forum intended primarily for a particular age group, but keep in mind that any Alliance member who cares about teens’ rights can participate, and teen members are welcome to participate in any of the other forums, too. Participants over 20 should, in this forum, generally limit their participation to providing support and information that a teen member has requested, and consider waiting until other teen members have had time to respond first. This is not a strict rule, but it follows naturally from our goal of helping teens empower themselves and each other.”

Blake Boles. Boles is an entrepreneur and world traveler who helps "young adults challenge themselves, feel engaged, and become better self-directed learners."

Center for Interim Programs, P.O. Box 2347, Cambridge MA 02238,617-547-0980. Fax: 617-661-2864.
Gap year counseling experts.

Chesapeake Bay Foundation, 6 Herndon Ave. Annapolis MD 21403, 800-445-5572.

Crow Canyon Archaeological Ctr, 23390 County Rd K, Cortez CO 8l32l, 970-565-8975, 800-422-8975. Our adult programs are open to people over age 18; summer camps and High School Field School are open to students age 12-18, and nontraditional students are welcome.

En Familie International
 A French, 38-year-old language immersion exchange program.

Experiment in International Living, Box 676, Kipling Rd, Brattleboro VT 05302-0676, 802-257-775l. 800-345-2929, Fax 802-258-3248. Cultural immersion home study programs for 3, 4, and 5 weeks in the summer to 18 countries.

Farm Sanctuary, P.O. Box 150, Watkins Glen NY 14891. 607-583-2225. Fax: 607-583-2041. Apprenticeships in caring for sick animals.

Free Computer Science Classes
A list of top websites for programmer education. Although not all of them are free, each site has at least one free level of instruction.

Great Smoky Mountains Institute at Tremont, 9275 Tremont Rd, Townsend TN 37882, 865-448-6709 Naturalist Workshops, programs for teenagers.

Hulbert Outdoor Center, 2968 Lake Morey Road, Fairless, VT, 05045, 802-333-3405. Fax 802- 333-3404. Camp for ages 9-17. Vegetarian food provided.

Kids for Saving Earth Clubs, P.O. Box421118, Plymouth MN 55442,763-559-1234.

Lazy Mill Living Arts, Teen Earthskills Immersion Program run by Ben Hewitt, author of Home Grown. Teens will explore the wild places of Stannard, Vermont, practicing traditional skills and primitive camping. 

Living Routes: Ecovillage Education, 85 Baker Road, Shutesbury, MA 01072-9703, 888-515-7333, Fax: 413-259-1256. College-level programs based in sustainable communities called ecovillages around the world.

National Wildlife Federation Wildlife Camp,, 800-822-9919

Not Back to School Camp, P.O. Box 1014, Eugene, OR, 97440, 541—686-2315. Grace Llewellyn’s camp for ages 13-18. Vegetarian food provided.

Off-Trail Learning, Blake Boles' latest venture for helping teenagers learn what they want to know in customized ways. A great information and podcast site. Here are the links to the free podcasts in the iTunes store.

Project World School, Inspiring Temporary Learning Communities for Teens & Young Adults

PUN.jpg (peer unschooling network)

Peer Unschooling Network (PUN), a digital community that helps connect unschooling teens from around the world.  It's a great place for existing unschoolers to make friends and also a valuable resource for people interested in unschooling to speak directly with some people who are already living the life.

SERVAS, 11 John St, Rm 505, New York NY l0038, 212-267-0252. Visit or host foreign family.

Time Out Adventures: Hands-on learning for the curious. 111 McDonald Ave, Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-575-3363

Uncollege. A useful and informative website created by unschoolers who didn't go to college yet found work worth doing and lives worth living.

Unschool Adventures. Blake Boles creates "life changing trips for self-directed young adults."

Tree People, l260l Mulholland Dr, Beverly HIlls CA 902l0, 818-753-4600.Environmental leadership program.

Academic Studies about College Admissions for Homeschoolers

Colleges that have admitted homeschoolers. This list was updated in 2013 by Karl Bunday, webmaster for

Journal of College Admissions, Fall 2004, Number 185. Special Homeschool Issue. Homeschoolers do well in college compared to their peers and 75% of the admission officers indicated that they had an official homeschool admission policy. You can read the entire issue at AHEM (Advocates for Home Education in Massachusetts).

Journal of College Admissions, Summer, 2010. "Exploring Academic Outcomes of Homeschooled Students" by Michael F. Cogan. The study examines the academic outcomes of homeschooled students who enter a medium size doctoral institution located in the Midwest. Descriptive analysis reveals homeschool students possess higher ACT scores, grade point averages (GPAs) and graduation rates when compared to traditionally-educated students. 

Hard Times in Paradise
By David Colfax, Micki Colfax

First-Hand Accounts of College Admissions for Homeschoolers

Homeschooled en route to Harvard, The Harvard Gazette, Feb. 2018.

Blake Boles. College Without High School: A Teenager's Guide to Skipping High School and Going to College, New Society Press, 2009.

Mickey and David Colfax Keynote at the GWS 20th Anniversary Conference.
The keynote is about how children learn through work, but the Colfax's speak about college admissions for unschoolers, too.

Grown Homeschoolers Panels, 1997 (video).

Grown Homeschoolers Panel 2005 (audio only). Panelists include homeschoolers who were in college, who just graduated, and who never attended. This panel was moderated by Sara-Beth Matilsky, a grown homeschooler who did not go to college and "did other things that homeschooling made possible."

Teenage Homeschoolers: College or Not?

Homeschooler Joel Fields discusses going to Harvard as part of an interview with John Holt on New England Today.

College Alternatives and Transcripts

Books About College Alternatives and Degrees

Arnall, Judy. Unschooling to University. Professional Parenting, 2018.

Atieh, Sam. How to Get a College Degree Via the Internet. Prima, 1998.

Beach, Wes. Opportunities after “High School.” 4th Edition. 2008.

——. Forging Paths: Beyond Traditional Schooling. GHF Press, 2012.

Boles, Blake. Better than College: How To Build a Successful Life Without a Four-Year Degree, Tells Peak Press, June 2012

Bear, John. College Degrees by Mail and Internet. 10th edition. Ten Speed Press, 2005.

Careers Without College Series (Peterson's Guides)

Success Without College Series (Barron's Educational Series)

Carroll, James L. College Credit Without Classes: How to obtain academic credit for what you already know. J.G. Ferguson, 1999.

Cohen, Cafi. And What About College? How Homeschooling Leads to Admissions to the Best Colleges and Universities. Holt Associates, 2000.

——. Homeschoolers’ College Admissions Handbook: Preparing 12- to 18-year-olds for Success in the College of Their Choice. Prima, 2000.

Frost, Maya. The New Global Student: Skip the SAT, Save Thousands on Tuition, and Get a Truly International Education. Three Rivers Press, 2009.

Hayes, Charles. Proving You're Qualified. Autodidactic Press. 1995.

Heuer, Loretta. The Homeschoolers Guide to Portfolios and Transcripts. Arco, 2000.

Kamenetz, Anya. DIY U: Edupunks, Edupreneurs, and the Coming Transformation of Higher Education. Chelsea Green, 2010.

Kohl, Herbert. The Question is College. Heinemann/Boynton/Cook, 1998.

Llewellyn, Grace. The Teenage Liberation Handbook: How to quit school and get a real life and education. Lowry House, 1998. NOTE: If you can only afford to purchase one book on this topic this is the one I always recommend.—PF

Nixon, Thomas. Bear’s Guide to Earning High School Diplomas Nontraditionally. Ten Speed Press, 2003.

Sheffer, Susannah. A Sense of Self: Listening to Homeschooled Adolescent Girls. Heinemann/Boynton/Cook, 1995

Stephens, Dale. Hacking Your Education: Ditch the Lectures, Save Tens of Thousands, and Learn More Than Your Peers Ever Will. Penguin, 2013.  

Wood, Danielle. The Uncollege Alternative: Your Guide to Incredible Careers and Amazing Adventures Outside College. ReganBooks, 2000.

 Alternatives to College

The ever-increasing expense of a four-year college degree, and questions about whether a college degree is still a good signal that someone is going to be a valuable employee or up-to-date with the latest technology, are making many delay or reconsider going to college. Many families that decide to use alternatives to K to 12 compulsory schooling eschew a standard college education for the same reasons. Just as there are good alternatives to high school, there are good alternatives to college.

Taking time away from attending school to find one’s direction and see if college is really a good next step, is one option. You may find that the traveling, apprenticeship, internship, and work opportunities that present themselves to you during this time can lead you to work worth doing without the need for a college degree. If you find you need a degree later, you might be in a better position to afford it since an employer may pay for some or all of your courses.

There are some employers, especially in the field of computers and technology, who are more concerned with your actual work output and what you are doing in life than they are concerned with your previous educational inputs and conventional school assessments. In addition, there are many free college courses you can take online, many from major universities. Though none will grant degrees, some will give you a certificate of completion.

There are also many books, programs, and online resources that explain how to create a do-it-yourself college program, how to earn college credit without classes, and how to get life-experience credits for college courses. These are all alternatives to college you can use right now, and there will be many more to come as the Internet and our economy continue to change.

If you decide that college is not right for you at this time or at all, in this section you will find alternatives to college degrees that don’t take as much time and money from you as 4-year degrees do. You will also find alternative ways to the training and credentials you need to pursue the career you are interested in.


Apprenticeships and Internships

“Learn by doing” is a tried-and-true method developed by humans, from stonemasons to philosophers, to transmit knowledge and skills over centuries. One was judged competent by how well one did the task at hand rather than by who trained them or where they studied. During the twentieth century independent learning alongside practitioners became much less common as educational attainment (degrees and other proof of school completion) became enshrined as a political goal and as a signal of individual competence to businesses seeking new employees. Some fields, such as plumbers, automobile technicians, and electricians, continue to use the apprenticeship model successfully, and the computer programming/hacking industry seems to be creating its own forms of apprenticeships.

Unlike apprenticeships, which often include a training wage and/or accommodations, internships tend to be unpaid positions. Further, many corporations and colleges have formed internship programs that benefit their mutual interests, but which often do not pay their interns nor give them valuable educational experience. A recent court decision about unpaid interns in the film industry indicates this unfair practice may be changing:

“The judge noted that these internships did not foster an educational environment and that the studio received the benefits of the work. The case could have broad implications. Young people have flocked to internships, especially against the backdrop of a weak job market.” (

A recent follow-up article notes the changing landscape for internships as a result of this case:

“In addition to filing lawsuits, interns are organizing beyond the courtroom, using some of the same strategies as fast-food workers, freelancers and various groups of part-time, temporary or guest workers. For example, two students at New York University recently created a petition demanding that the university stop advertising unpaid internships on campus; more than a thousand people signed in a matter of days. (

Establishing an internship through your personal network can be a rewarding experience, especially if you define clear terms and expectations for all parties in advance. However, as these articles indicate, internships through institutional programs can be less than satisfying if you are not careful.

Here are some resources to help you learn more about apprenticeships and internships.

Mark Oldman. The Best 109 Internships, 9th Edition

Ross Perrin. Intern Nation: How to Earn Nothing and Learn Little in the Brave New Economy. Verso, 2012.

Princeton Review. The Internship Bible, 10th edition (2005)

 Registered Apprenticeship
The US Department of Labor has state listings for registered apprenticeships. Their website notes, “The Registered Apprenticeship system provides the opportunity for workers seeking high-skilled, high- paying jobs and for employers seeking to build a qualified workforce. . . . The "Earn and Learn" training model of Registered Apprenticeship provides a unique combination of structured learning with on-the-job training from an assigned mentor.” You can search their program sponsor database here.

Grace Llewelyn. The Teenage Liberation Handbook: How To Quit School and Get a Real Life and Education. Lowry House. Lowry House, 1998. Has a great chapter on apprenticeships.


Prove Your Knowledge and Earn College Credit

Thomas Edison State College  "does not award credit for life experience. Rather, we provide our students the opportunity to earn credit by demonstrating that they possess college-level knowledge, and we have several methods to help students do just that." Read this NY Times article about Thomas Edison State College to learn more. To apply you must be:

●      An adult 21 years of age or older (unless you are participating in a special college program).

●      A high school graduate or have successfully passed a General Educational Development (GED) test.

Gap-Year Programs

Taking time off between high school and college is called a “gap year,” and many students find this time well spent. Of course, you may decide that there are things worth doing you can do without going college, so the gap can allow you to build a bridge to a new destination.

This is a page full of interesting resources about gap years:

College Reality Chat: Gap Year(s)

Blake Boles

Blake writes about options to college and offers a variety of support to teenage learners.

Zero Tuition College

“Zero Tuition College is three things:

●      The idea that you don't need a college degree to find success.

●      A specific strategy for self-directing your education (as explained in the book Better Than College).

●      A community website that helps self-directed learners connect with each other.

A few things that we aren't: a brick-and-mortar college, a "free college for everyone" movement, or a business.” ZTC is operated by Blake Boles. 

Bear, Mariah. Bear’s Guide to College Degrees by Mail and Internet, 10 Speed Press, 2005.

Education Portal
Contains lists of online courses for college credit and information about high school, associates, college, and graduate school degrees.

Books and Articles That Are Critical of the Costs and Promises of Higher Education

Richard Arum. Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses. (University of Chicago Press, 2010).  A main finding in this book is that “Forty-five percent of these students demonstrate no significant improvement in a range of skills—including critical thinking, complex reasoning, and writing—during their first two years of college.”

Ivar Berg. Education and Jobs: The Great Training Robbery (Beacon Press, 1971). Berg was a professor at the Columbia University Graduate School of Business and this work is one of the first critiques of society’s belief in certified programs as evidence of competence. Out of print, but worth hunting down for its conclusions and data.

The National Center for Education Statistics notes, “Between 2000–01 and 2010–11, prices for undergraduate tuition, room, and board at public institutions rose 42 percent, and prices at private not-for-profit institutions rose 31 percent, after adjustment for inflation.”

“Majority of New Jobs Pay Low Wages, Study Finds”

Number of US Adults With College Degrees Hits Historic High” However, this article goes on to note, “in terms of future earnings, education level matters less these days than in previous generations, and field of study matters more.” 

CNN report: “My Master’s wasn’t worth it”

Eighty-four percent of employers rate college graduates as unprepared or only somewhat prepared for the job.” From Is College Worth It? By Bill Bennett and David Wilezol

More Books and Resources about Alternatives to College

Better Than College

Author Blake Boles explores reasons to go and not go to college, and presents the reader with many options for work worth doing without going to college first.

Careers Without College Series.

These books might be in your local high school or public library, too. Here are some of the titles in this book series, FYI:

Careers Without College—Cars

Careers Without College—Computers

Careers Without College—Fashion

Careers Without College—Health Care

Careers Without College—Building

Careers Without College—Emergencies

Careers Without College—Entertainment

Careers Without College—Fitness

Careers Without College—Kids

Careers Without College—Money

Careers Without College—Music

Careers Without College—Office

Careers Without College—Sports

Careers Without College—Travel

Career Bookstore has a similar series to the above and it is more up-to-date. However, it includes careers that require college degrees mixed in with ones that don’t, so be sure to choose your book carefully—they’re expensive. See if your public library has these books.

Carroll, James L. College Credit Without Classes: How to obtain academic credit for what you already know. J.G. Ferguson, 1999.

Frost, Maya. The New Global Student: Skip the SAT, Save Thousands on Tuition, and Get a Truly International Education. Three Rivers Press, 2009.

Kamenetz, Anya. DIY U: Edupunks, Edupreneurs, and the Coming Transformation of Higher Education. Chelsea Green, 2010.

Hacker School

A three-month program in New York City for becoming a better programmer.


Dale Stephens' started this website that supports his work with "hackademics," a term he describes in depth in his book Hacking Your Education: Ditch the Lectures, Save Tens of Thousands, and Learn More Than Your Peers Ever Will, Penguin 2013.

Common Questions and Answers about Homeschooling

By John Holt with later additions by Patrick Farenga (This is reprinted from Chapter 3 of Teach Your Own)

NOTE: To learn about the laws and regulations about homeschooling in your state, check with your local or state homeschooling groups as they will likely have the most up-to-date information. You can locate general legal information from this list, and find support with this list; both lists are maintained by Anne Zeiss.—PF

People, especially educators, who hear me [John Holt, 1981] talk about homeschooling, raise certain objections so often that it is worth answering them here.

Since our countries are so large and our people are from so many different kinds of backgrounds (this was said most recently to me by a Canadian) don't we need some kind of social glue to make us stick together, to give us a sense of unity in spite of all our differences, and aren't compulsory public schools the easiest and best places to make this glue?

About needing the glue, he's absolutely right. We do need such a glue, certainly in big diverse countries like the U.S. and Canada, but also in much smaller and more tightly-knit countries, many of whom are also breaking apart under the stresses of modern life.

Right now, the main social glue we seem to have here in the U.S. is hatred of "enemy" countries. Except when briefly united in such hatred, far too many of us see our fellow-citizens, even those of our own color, religion, etc., only as our natural enemies and rightful prey, to do in if we can. Indeed, we insist that this way of looking at other people is actually a virtue, which we name "competition." This outlook may have worked fairly well when our country was young, nearly empty, and rich in natural resources, but not anymore. For our very survival, let alone health and happiness, we need a much stronger and better social glue than this.

Some kinds of community gathering places and activities might help us form this social glue. But not schools—not as long as they also have the job of sorting out the young into winners and losers, and preparing the losers for a lifetime of losing. These two jobs can't be done in the same place at the same time.

People are best able, and perhaps only able, to cross the many barriers of race, class, custom, and belief that divide them when they are able to share experiences that make them feel good. Only from these do they get a stronger sense of their own, and therefore other people's, uniqueness, dignity, and worth. But as long as schools have their present social tasks, they will not be able to give such experiences to most children. In fact, most of what happens in school makes children feel the exact opposite - stupid, incompetent, ashamed. Distrusting and despising themselves, they then try to make themselves feel a little better by finding others whom they can look down on even more - poorer children, children from other races, children who do less well in school.

Even if children do learn in school to despise, fear, and even hate children from other social groups, might they not hate them even more if they did not meet them in school? At least in school they see these other groups as real people. Without school, they would know them only as abstractions, bogeymen. This might sometimes be true, but only of those few children for whom the world outside of school was as dull, painful, humiliating, and threatening as school. Most children who learn without school, or who go only when they want to, grow up with a much stronger sense of their own dignity and worth, and therefore, with much less need to despise and hate others.

The important question, how can people learn to feel a stronger sense of kinship or common humanity with others who are different, is for me best answered by a story about John L. Sullivan, once the heavyweight prize fighting champion of the world. Late one afternoon he and a friend were riding standing up in a crowded New York City streetcar. At one stop, a burly young man got on who had had too much to drink. He swaggered down the center of the car, pushing people out of his way, and as he passed John L., gave him a heavy shove with his shoulder. John L. clutched a strap to keep from falling, but said nothing. As the young man went to the back of the car, John L.'s friend said to him, "Are you going to let him get away with that?." John L. shrugged and said, "Oh, I don't see why not." His friend became very indignant. "You're the heavyweight champion of the world," he said furiously. "You don't have to be so damned polite." To which John L. replied, "The heavyweight champion of the world can afford to be polite."

What we need to pull our countries more together are more people who can afford to be polite, and much more - kind, patient, generous, forgiving, and tolerant, able and willing, not just to stand people different from themselves, but to make an effort to understand them, to see the world through their eyes. These social virtues are not the kind that can be talked or preached or discussed or bribed or threatened into people. They are a kind of surplus, an overflowing, in people who have enough love and respect for themselves and therefore have some left over for others.

Children in public schools are able to meet, and get to know, many children very different from themselves. If they didn't go to public school, how would this happen?

The first part of the answer to this question has to be that it very rarely happens in public schools. Except in very small schools, of which there are few, and which tend to be one-class schools anyway, children in public schools, other than a few top athletes, have very little contact with others different from themselves, and less and less as they rise through the grades. In most large schools the children are tracked, i.e., the college track, the business track, the vocational track. Even within each major track there may be subgroupings. Large schools may often have a half-dozen or more tracks. Students in one track go to one group of classes, students in another track go to others. Very rarely will students from different tracks find themselves in the same class. But—and here is the main point—study after study has shown that these tracks correlate perfectly with family income and social status: the richest or most socially prominent kids in the top track, the next richest in the next, and so on down to the poorest kids in the bottom track.

In theory, children are assigned to these tracks according to their school abilities. In practice, children are put in tracks almost as soon as they enter school, long before they have had time to show what abilities they may have. Once put in a track, few children ever escape from it. A Chicago second grade teacher once told me that in her bottom-track class of poor non-white children were two or three who were exceptionally good at schoolwork. Since they learned, quickly and well, everything she was supposed to be teaching them, she gave them A's. Soon after she had submitted her first grades, the principal called her in, and asked why she had given A's to some of her students. She explained that these children were very bright and had done all the work. He ordered her to lower their grades, saying that if they had been capable of getting A's they wouldn't have been put in the lowest track. But, as she found upon checking, they had been put into this lowest track almost as soon as they had entered school.

Even where the schools do not track children by classes, the teachers are almost certain to track them within their classes. In Freedom and Beyond I gave this example:

An even more horrifying example of the way this discrimination works can be found in the article "Student Social Class and Teacher Expectation: The Self-fulfilling Prophecy in Ghetto Education," by Ray Rist, in the August 1970 issue of the Harvard Educational Review. The kindergarten teacher described, after only eight days of school, and entirely on the basis of appearance, dress, manners, in short, "middle classness", divided her class into three tracks by seating them at three separate tables, which remained fixed for the rest of the year. One of these tables got virtually all of her teaching, attention, and support; the other two were increasingly ignored except when the teacher told them to do something or commented unfavorably on what they did. Worse yet, the children at the favored table were allowed and encouraged to make fun of the children at the other two tables, and to boss them around.

Rist followed these children through three years of school, and reported, first, that these children's first and second grade teachers also tracked by tables within their classes, and secondly, that only one of the children assigned in kindergarten to one of the two bottom tables ever made it later to a favored table. And the odds are very good that most elementary school classes have a kind of caste system in action. Even in small and selective private schools, I found that many of my fellow teachers were quick to label some children "good" and others "bad", often on the basis of appearance, and that children once labeled "bad" found it almost impossible to get that label changed.

Enough has been written about class and racial conflict in schools, above all in high schools, so that I don't want to add much to it here. Where different races are integrated in schools, even after many years, this usually begins to break down around third grade, if not even sooner. From fifth grade on, in their social lives, children are almost completely separated into racial groups, which become more and more hostile as the children grow older. Even in one-race schools, white or nonwhite, there is class separation, class contempt, and class conflict. Few friendships are made across such lines, and the increasing violence in our high schools arises almost entirely from conflicts between such groups.

So the idea that schools mix together in happy groups children from widely differing backgrounds is for the most part simply not true. The question remains, how would children meet other children from different backgrounds if they did not go to school? I don't know. While the numbers of such children remain small, this will be difficult. But as the numbers of such children grow, there will be more places for them to go and more things for them to do that are not based in school. We can certainly hope, and may to some extent be able to arrange, that in these places children from different backgrounds may be more mixed together. Also, people who teach their children at home already tend to think of themselves as something of an extended family, and using the Directory in Growing without Schooling, write each other letters, visit each other when they can, have local meetings, and so on. I hope this will remain true as more working-class and non-white families begin to unschool their children, and it well may; people who feel this kind of affection and trust in their own children tend to feel a strong bond with others who feel the same.

How are we going to prevent parents with narrow and bigoted ideas from passing these on to their children?

The first question we have to answer is, do we have a right to try to prevent it? And even if we think we do, can we?

One of the main differences between a free country and a police state, I always thought, was that in a free country, as long as you obeyed the law, you could believe whatever you liked. Your beliefs were none of the government's business. Far less was it any of the government's business to say that one set of ideas was good and another set bad, or that schools should promote the good and stamp out the bad. Have we given up these principles? And if we haven't, do we really want to? Suppose we decided to give the government the power, through compulsory schools, to promote good ideas and put down bad. To whom would we then give the power to decide which ideas were good and which bad? To legislatures? To state boards of education? To local school boards?

Anyone who thinks seriously about these questions will surely agree that no one in government should have such power. From this it must follow that people have the right not only to believe what they want, but to try to pass their beliefs along to their children. We can't say that some people have this right while others do not. Some will say, but what about people who are prejudiced, bigoted, superstitious? We're surely not going to let people try to make their children believe that some races are superior or that the earth is flat? To which I say, what is the alternative? If we say, as many would like to, that people can tell their children anything they want, as long as it is true, we come back to our first question - who decides what is true? If we agree - as I think and hope we do - that there is no one in government or anywhere else whom we would trust to decide that, then it follows that we can't give schools the right to tell all children that some ideas are true and others are not. Since any school, whether by what it says or what it does, must promote some ideas, it follows that while people who approve of the ideas being taught or promoted in government schools may be glad to send their children there, people who don't approve of those ideas should have some other choice. This is essentially what the U.S. Supreme Court said in Pierce v. Society of Sisters (See Chapter 13 of Teach Your Own).

One of the reasons why growing numbers of people are so passionately opposed to the public schools is that these schools are in fact acting as if someone had explicitly and legally given them the power to promote one set of ideas and to put down others. A fairly small group of people, educational bureaucrats at the state and federal level, who largely control what schools say and do, are more and more using the schools to promote whatever ideas they happen to think will be good for the children, or the country. But we have never formally decided, through any political process, to give the schools such power, far less agreed on what ideas we would like the schools to promote. On the contrary, there is every reason to believe that large majorities of the people strongly dislike many or most of the ideas that most schools promote today.

Even if we all agreed that the schools should try to stamp out narrow and bigoted ideas, we would still have to ask ourselves, does this work? Clearly it doesn't. After all, except for a few rich kids, almost all children in the country have been going to public schools now for several generations. If the schools were as good as they claim at stamping out prejudice, there ought not to be any left. A quick glance at any day's news will show that there is plenty left. In fact, there may well be less support today than ever before for the tolerance and open-mindedness that the schools supposedly promote.

If you don't send your children to school, how are they going to learn to fit into a mass society?

Educators often ask me these two questions in the same meeting, often within a few minutes of each other. Obviously, they cancel each other out. The schools may in fact be able to prepare children to fit into the mass society, which means, among other things, believing what most people believe and liking what most people like. Or they may be able to help children find a set of values with which they could resist and reject at least many of the values of the mass society. But they certainly can't do both.

It seems to be one of the articles of faith of educators that they, and they alone, hold out to the young a vision of higher things. At meetings, they often talk as if they spent much of their time and energy defending children from the corrupt values of the mass media and the television set. Where, but from us, they say, are children going to hear about good books, Shakespeare, culture? We are the only ones who are thinking about what is good for them; everyone else is just trying to exploit them. The fact is, however, that most schools are far more concerned to have children accept the values of mass society than to help them resist them. When school people hear about people teaching their children at home, they almost always say, "But aren't you afraid that your children are going to grow up to be different, outsiders, misfits, unable to adjust to society?" They take it for granted that in order to live reasonably happily, usefully, and successfully in the world you have to be mostly like most other people.

In any case, the schools' efforts to sell children the higher culture seldom work, since they obviously value it so little themselves. In my introduction to Roland Betts's Acting Out(Boston: Little, Brown, 1978), a frightening account of life in New York City's public schools, I wrote:

Our big city schools are largely populated, and will be increasingly populated, by the children of the non-white poor, the youngest members and victims of a sick subculture of a sick society, obsessed by violence and the media-inspired worship of dominance, luxury, and power. This culture, or more accurately, anticulture, has done more harm to its members and victims, has fragmented, degraded, and corrupted them more than centuries of slavery and the most brutal repression were able to do. Every day this anticulture, in the person of the children, invades the schools. If the schools had a true and humane culture of their own, which they really understood, believed in, cared about, and lived by, as did the First Street School some years ago, they might put up a stiff resistance, might even win some of the children over. But since the culture of the school is only a pale and somewhat more timid and genteel version of the culture of the street outside... nothing changes. Far from being able to woo the children away from greed, envy, and violence, the schools cannot even protect them against each other.

A friend of mine, in his early thirties, is a journalist, generally liberal, and sympathetic to the young. Not long ago, he visited a number of high schools in the affluent suburbs of Los Angeles where he grew up, talking to the students, trying to find out what they seemed most interested in and cared most about. I asked eagerly what he had found. After a silence, he said, "They seem to be mostly interested in money, sex, and drugs." He was clearly as unhappy to say it as I was to hear it. We would both like to have found out that these favored young people wanted to do something to make a better world, as many did fifteen years ago. But we should not be surprised that young people should be most interested in the things that most interest their elders.
Nor is it fair to blame the schools, as many people do, for the interest of the young in these things. Attacked from all sides, the schools say plaintively, "But we didn't invent these values." Quite right; they didn't. What we can and must say is that to whatever extent the schools have tried to combat these values, they have almost totally failed. In any case, to return once more to my first point, they can hardly claim that they are at one and the same time teaching children to accept and also to resist these dominant values of our commercial culture.

If children are taught at home, won't they miss the valuable social life of the school?

If there were no other reason for wanting to keep kids out of school, the social life would be reason enough. In all but a very few of the schools I have taught in, visited, or know anything about, the social life of the children is mean-spirited, competitive, exclusive, status-seeking, snobbish, full of talk about who went to whose birthday party and who got-what Christmas presents and who got how many Valentine cards and who is talking to so-and-so and who is not. Even in the first grade, classes soon divide into leaders (energetic and—often deservedly—popular kids), their bands of followers, and other outsiders who are pointedly excluded from these groups.

I remember my sister saying of one of her children, then five, that she never knew her to do anything really mean or silly until she went away to school - a nice school, by the way, in a nice small town.

Jud Jerome, writer, poet, former professor at Antioch, wrote about his son, Topher, meeting this so-called "social life" in a free school run by a commune:

... Though we were glad he was happy and enjoying himself (in school), we were also sad as we watched him deteriorate from a person into a kid under peer influence in school. It was much like what we saw happening when he was in kindergarten. There are certain kinds of childishness which it seems most people accept as being natural, something children have to go through, something which it is, indeed, a shame to deny them. Silliness, self-indulgence, random rebelliousness, secretiveness, cruelty to other children, clubbishness, addiction to toys, possessions, junk, spending money, purchased entertainment, exploitation of adults to pay attention, take them places, amuse them, do things with them - all these things seem to me quite unnecessary, not "normal" at all (note: except in the sense of being common), and just as disgusting in children as they are in adults. And while they develop as a result of peer influence, I believe this is only, and specifically, because children are thrown together in school and develop these means, as prisoners develop the means of passing dull time and tormenting authorities to cope with an oppressive situation. The richer the families the children come from, the worse these traits seem to be. Two years of school and Topher would probably have regressed two years in emotional development. I am not sure of that, of course, and it was not because of that fear that we pulled him out, but we saw enough of what happened to him in a school situation not to regret pulling him out...

One of our readers gave us a vivid description of what must be a very typical school experience:

My mother tells me that after the first day in kindergarten I told her that I didn't need to go to school anymore because I knew everything already. Great arrogance? Not really. I knew how to be quiet, how to listen to children's stories, and how to sing. I wanted to learn about the adult world, but was restricted to a world which adults believed children wanted. My great pre-school enthusiasm died an early death . . .

This reader's experience is surely not unusual. When I was nine, I was in a public elementary school, in a class in which almost all the boys were bigger and older than I was, most of them from working-class Italian or Polish families. One by one, the toughest ones first, then the others, more or less in order of toughness, beat me up at recess, punched me until they knocked me down and/or made me cry. Once a boy had beaten me up, he rarely bothered to do it again. There didn't seem to me to be much malice in it; it was as if this had to be done in order to find my proper place in the class. Finally everyone had beaten me except a boy named Henry. One day the bigger boys hemmed us in and told us that we had to fight to find who was the biggest sissy in the sixth grade. Henry and I said we didn't want to fight. They said if we didn't, they would beat up both of us. So for a while Henry and I circled around, swinging wildly at each other, the bigger boys laughing and urging us on. Nothing happened for some time, until one of my wild swings hit Henry's nose. It began to bleed, Henry began to cry, and so did I. But the bigger boys were satisfied; they declared that Henry was now the official biggest sissy in the class.

A teacher writes:

On Friday I was reading GWS and intrigued with it as usual. I'm especially interested in the "social life" aspect of schools and the damage it causes. This morning I asked my third graders, "Do you feel that in our school kids are nice, kind to each other?"

When I point out to people that the social life of most schools and classrooms is mean-spirited, status-oriented, competitive, and snobbish, I am always astonished by their response. Not one person of the hundreds with whom I've discussed this has yet said to me that the social life at school is kindly, generous, supporting, democratic, friendly, loving, or good for children. No, without exception, when I condemn the social life of school, people say, "But that's what the children are going to meet in Real Life."

The "peer groups" into which we force children have many other powerful and harmful effects. Every now and then, in the subway or some public place, I see young people, perhaps twelve or thirteen years old, sometimes even as young as ten, smoking cigarettes. It is a comic and pitiful sight. It is also an ordeal. The smoke tastes awful. Children have sensitive taste buds, and that smoke must taste even worse to them than to most nonsmoking adults, which is saying a lot. They have to struggle not to choke, not to cough, maybe even not to get sick. Why do they do it? Because "all the other kids" are doing it, or soon will be, and they have to stay ahead of them, or at least not fall behind. In short, wanting to smoke, or feeling one has to smoke whether one wants to or not, is one of the many fringe benefits of that great "social life" at school that people talk about.

I feel sorry for all the children who think they have to smoke, and even sorrier for any nonsmoking parents who may desperately wish they could persuade them not to. If the children have lived in the peer group long enough to become enslaved to it, addicted to it - we might call them "peer group junkies" - then they are going to smoke, and do anything and everything else the peer group does. If Mom and Pop make a fuss, then they will lie about it and do it behind their backs. The evidence on this is clear. In some age groups, fewer people are smoking. But more children are smoking every year, especially girls, and they start earlier.

The same is true of drinking. We hear more and more about drinking, drunkenness, and alcoholism among the young. Some states have tried in recent years to deal with the problem by raising the minimum drinking age. It doesn't seem to have helped; if anything, the problem only gets worse. One news story sticks in my mind. One night last summer, in a town near Boston, four high school girls, all about sixteen or seventeen, were killed and another seriously injured in an auto accident. Earlier in the evening, they had loaded up their small car with beer and several kinds of liquor and had gone out for an evening of driving and drinking. By the time of the accident, all were drunk. The one survivor was later quoted by the papers as saying, from her bed in the hospital, "I didn't think there was anything wrong with what we were doing; all the kids around here do it."

Of course, children who spend almost all their time in groups of other people their own age, shut out of society's serious work and concerns, with almost no contact with any adults except child-watchers, are going to feel that what "all the other kids" are doing is the right, the best, the only thing to do.

How are we going to prevent children being taught by "unqualified" teachers?

First of all, to know what is meant by "qualified", we have to know what is meant by quality. We could hardly agree on who was or was not a good painter if we did not to a large extent agree on what was or was not a good painting. The question asked above assumes that since educators agree on and understand correctly what is meant by good teaching, they are able to make sound judgments about who is or is not a good teacher. But the fact is that educators do not understand or agree about what makes good teaching. The dismal record of the schools is proof enough of this. Still further proof is that, when charged in court with negligence (see the section "A Doubtful Claim" in Chapter 14 of Teach Your Own), educators defend themselves by saying (with the approval of the courts) that they cannot be judged guilty of not having done what should have been done, because no one knows what should have been done. This may be so. But it clearly follows that people who don't know what should be done can hardly judge who is or is not competent to do it.

In practice, educators who worry about "unqualified" people teaching their own children almost always define "qualified" to mean teachers trained in schools of education and holding teaching certificates. They assume that to teach children involves a host of mysterious skills that can be learned only in schools of education, and that are in fact taught there; that people who have this training teach much better than those who do not; and indeed that people who have not had this training are not competent to teach at all.

None of these assumptions are true.

Human beings have been sharing information and skills, and passing along to their children whatever they knew, for about a million years now. Along the way they have built some very complicated and highly skilled societies. During all those years there were very few teachers in the sense of people whose only work was teaching others what they knew. And until very recently there were no people at all who were trained in teaching, as such. People always understood, sensibly enough, that before you could teach something you had to know it yourself. But only very recently did human beings get the extraordinary notion that in order to be able to teach what you knew you had to spend years being taught how to teach.

To the extent that teaching involves and requires some real skills, these have long been well understood.

They are no mystery.

Teaching skills are among the many commonsense things about dealing with other people that - unless we are mistaught - we learn just by living. In any community people have always known that if you wanted to find out how to get somewhere or do something, some people were much better to ask than others. For a long, long time, people who were good at sharing what they knew have realized certain things: (1) to help people learn something, you must first understand what they already know; (2) showing people how to do something is better than telling them, and letting them do it themselves is best of all; (3) you mustn't tell or show too much at once, since people digest new ideas slowly and must feel secure with new skills or knowledge before they are ready for more; (4) you must give people as much time as they want and need to absorb what you have shown or told them; (5) instead of testing their understanding with questions you must let them show how much or how little they understand by the questions they ask you; (6) you must not get impatient or angry when people don't understand; (7) scaring people only blocks learning, and so on. These are clearly not things that one has to spend three years talking about.

And in fact these are not what schools of education talk about. They give very little thought to the act of teaching itself—helping another person find something out, or answering that person's questions. What they spend most of their time doing is preparing their students to work in the strange world of schools—which, in all fairness, is what the students want to find out: how to get a teaching job and keep it. This means learning how to speak the school's language (teeny little ideas blown up into great big words), how to do all the things schools want teachers to do, how to fill out its endless forms and papers, and how to make the endless judgments it likes to make about students. Above all else, education students are taught to think that what they know is extremely important and that they are the only ones who know it.

As for the idea that certified teachers teach better than uncertified, or that uncertified teachers cannot teach at all, there is not a shred of evidence to support it, and a great deal of evidence against it. One indication is that our most selective, demanding, and successful private schools have among their teachers hardly any, if indeed any at all, who went to teacher training schools and got their degrees in education. Few such schools would even consider hiring a teacher who had only such training and such a degree. How does it happen that the richest and most powerful people in the country, the ones most able to choose what they want for their children, so regularly choose not to have them taught by trained and certified teachers? One might almost count it among the major benefits of being rich that you are able to avoid having your children taught by such teachers.

In this connection, the following story from the Philadelphia Inquirer, November 18, 1979, may be of interest:

. . . Rev. Peder Bloom, Assistant Headmaster of Doane Academy at St. Mary's Hall, an independent Episcopalian school founded in 1837, sees not only a larger, but a more varied clientele applying.
"Any number" of parents are both working to pay tuition bills, he says, and presently the biggest single occupational parent group is public school administrators [Author's emphasis], according to private school administrators. It used to be doctors; now they are second . . .

When a district court in Kentucky challenged the state board of education to show evidence that certified teachers were better than uncertified, the board was unable to produce (in the judge's words) "a scintilla of evidence" to that effect. The same thing happened more recently in a Michigan court. It is very unlikely that any other state boards would be able to do so.

In the state of Alaska, hundreds or perhaps thousands of homesteading families live many miles from the nearest town, or even road. The only way they can get in and out of their homes is by plane. Since the state cannot provide schools for these families, or transport their children to and from existing schools, it very sensibly has a correspondence school of its own which mails school materials to these families, who then teach their children at home. Nobody seems to worry very much about whether these families are "qualified", and no one has yet brought forth any evidence that home-taught children in Alaska do less well in their studies than school-taught children, there or in other states. For that matter, many states in the Lower 48 have laws saying that if children live more than so many miles from the nearest school, or bus route to a school, they don't have to go to school. It would be interesting to find out how many such children there are, and what provisions these states make for their education, and how well these children do in their schoolwork.
Perhaps the leading correspondence school for school-aged children is the Calvert Institute of Baltimore, Maryland. It has been in business for a long time, and for all that time most school districts - I know of no exceptions - have been willing to accept a year of study under Calvert as equal to a year of study in school. Indeed, this assurance that Calvert-taught children would not fall behind has been part of what Calvert offered and sold its customers and clients. These have been, for the most part, American families living overseas - missionaries, military or diplomatic people, people working in foreign offices of American firms, etc. A recent Calvert ad said they have had over three hundred thousand customers. Clearly a very large number of parents have taught and are teaching their children at home, without these children falling behind. But very few of these parents can have been certified teachers.

Years ago I read that one or more inner-city schools had tried the experiment of letting fifth graders teach first graders to read. They found, first, that the first graders learned faster than similar first-graders taught by trained teachers, and secondly, that the fifth graders who were teaching them—many or most of whom had not been good readers themselves—also improved a great deal in their reading. These schools apparently did these experiments in desperation. It is easy to see why they have not been widely repeated. Even in those schools that are willing to allow "paraprofessional" adults, i.e., people without teachers' certificates, in their classrooms, the regular teachers almost always insist that these paraprofessionals not be allowed to do any teaching. But poor countries have found in mass literacy programs that almost anyone who can read can teach anyone else who wants to learn.

I found in my own classes, as in others I have since observed where children are allowed to talk to each other and to help each other with schoolwork, that many children were very good at teaching each other. There were many reasons for this. Even though I did my best to convince them that ignorance was no shame, they felt much freer to confess ignorance and confusion to each other than to me, since they knew that they knew little and wrongly thought that I knew almost everything. Also, they did not have to fear that their friends might give them a bad grade. I had told them that I did not believe in grades, and I think they believed me. But they understood, as I did, that this had little to do with reality; both the school and their parents demanded grades, and I had to give them. Some of them, who really liked me, may have feared that after struggling to teach them something I would be disappointed if they didn't learn it. Indeed this was true, and though I tried not to be disappointed or at least not to show that I was, I never really succeeded. They wanted to please me, and knew when they hadn't.

Learning from each other, they didn't have to worry about this. A child teaching another is not disappointed if the other does not understand or learn, since teaching is not his main work and he is not worried about whether he is or is not a good teacher. He may be exasperated, may even say, "Come on, dummy, pay attention, what's the matter with you?" Since children tend to be direct and blunt with each other anyway, this probably won't bother the learner. If it does, he can say so. Either the other will be more tactful, since he rightly values their friendship more than the effectiveness of his teaching, or the learner will find another helper. And this is another and important reason why children are good at teaching each other. Both child-teacher and child-learner know that this teacher-learner relationship is temporary, much less important than their friendship, in which they meet as equals. This temporary relationship will go on only as long as they are both satisfied with it. The child-teacher doesn't have to teach the other, and the child-learner doesn't have to learn from the other. Since they both come to the relationship freely and by their own choice, they are truly equal partners in it.

I want to stress very strongly that the fact that their continuing relationship as friends is more important than their temporary relationship as learner and teacher is above all else what makes this temporary relationship work. There is an old rule in medicine (not always obeyed): "First, do no harm." In other words, in treating patients, make sure you do not injure them. The rule is just as true for teaching. Above all else, be sure that in your eagerness to make them learn, you do not frighten, offend, insult, or humiliate those you are teaching. Teachers of animals, whether dogs, dolphins, circus animals, or whatever, understand that very well—it is the first rule in their book. It is only among teachers of human beings that many do not understand and even hotly deny this rule.

It is because they understand this rule, if not in words at least in their hearts, that the kind of parents who teach their own children are likely to do it better than anyone else. Such people do not knowingly hurt their children. When they see that something they are doing is hurting their child, they stop, no matter how good may have been their reasons for doing it. They take seriously any signals of pain and distress that their children give them. Of course, the distress signals that children make when we try too hard to teach them something are quite different from the signals they make when something hurts them. Instead of saying "Ow!" they say, "I don't get it," or "This is crazy." It took me years, teaching in classrooms, to learn what those signals were, and still longer to understand how I was causing the distress. But parents teaching at home are in a much better position to learn these distress signals than a classroom teacher. They are not distracted by the problems of managing a class, they know the children better, and their spoken and unspoken languages, and they care about them more. Also, as I have said elsewhere, they can try things out to see what works, and drop whatever does not. Since they control their experience, they can learn more from it.

This is not to say that all families who try to teach their own children will learn to do it well. Some may not. But such families are likely to find homeschooling so unpleasant that they will be glad to give it up, the children most of all. A homeschooling mother wrote me that when, simply out of fear of the schools, she began to give her children a lot of conventional schoolwork, they said, "Look, Mom, if we're going to have to spend all our time doing this school junk, we'd rather do it in school." Quite right. If you are going to have to spend your days doing busywork to relieve adult anxieties, better do it in school, where you only have one-thirtieth of the teacher's anxieties, rather than at home, where you have all of your parent's.

We can sum up very quickly what people need to teach their own children. First of all, they have to like them, enjoy their company, their physical presence, their energy, foolishness, and passion. They have to enjoy all their talk and questions, and enjoy equally trying to answer those questions. They have to think of their children as friends, indeed very close friends, have to feel happier when they are near and miss them when they are away. They have to trust them as people, respect their fragile dignity, treat them with courtesy, take them seriously. They have to feel in their own hearts some of their children's wonder, curiosity, and excitement about the world. And they have to have enough confidence in themselves, skepticism about experts, and willingness to be different from most people, to take on themselves the responsibility for their children's learning. But that is about all that parents need. Perhaps only a minority of parents have these qualities. Certainly some have more than others. Many will gain more as they know their children better; most of the people who have been teaching their children at home say that it has made them like them more, not less. In any case, these are not qualities that can be taught or learned in a school, or measured with a test, or certified with a piece of paper.

Are there then no requirements of schooling or learning? Isn't there some minimum that people ought to know? Could people teach their children who had never been to school themselves? Even if they didn't know how to read and write? I think even then they probably could. A woman told me not long ago, after a meeting, that though she had a degree from Radcliffe and a Ph.D. from Harvard, the most helpful, influential, and important of all the teachers she had ever had was her mother, who had come to this country as an immigrant and who was illiterate not only here but in the country of her birth. And while working as a consultant to a program to teach adult illiterates to read, I heard about one of the students, a middle-aged woman who had for years concealed her illiteracy from her college graduate husband and her children, whom she used to regularly help with their schoolwork. For many years I told her story to show how cleverly people can bluff and fake. Only recently did I realize that this woman's children would not have come to her year after year for help on their schoolwork unless her help had been helpful. She was in short not just a clever bluffer, but a very good teacher.

I don't expect many illiterate parents to ask me how they can take their children out of school and teach them at home. But if any do, I will say, "I don't think that just because you have not yet learned to read and write means that you can't do a better job of helping your children learn about the world than the schools. But one of the things you are going to have to do in order to help them is learn to read and write. It is easy, if you really want to do it, and once you get out of your head the idea that you can't do it. If any of your children can read and write, they can help you learn. If none of them can read and write, you can learn together. But it is important that you learn. In the first place, if you don't, and the schools find out, there is no way in the world that they or the courts are going to allow you to teach your children at home. In the second place, if you don't know how to read and write, your children are likely to feel that reading and writing are not useful and interesting, or else that they are very difficult, neither of which is true. So learning to read and write will have to be one of your first tasks."

How am I going to teach my child six hours a day?

Who's teaching him six hours a day right now?

As a child, I went to the "best" schools, some public, most private. I was a good student, the kind that teachers like to talk to. And it was a rare day indeed in my schooling when I got fifteen minutes of teaching, that is, of concerned and thoughtful adult talk about something that I found interesting, puzzling, or important. Over the whole of my schooling, the average was probably closer to fifteen minutes a week. For most children in most schools, it is much less than that. Many poor, nonwhite, or unusual kids never get any real teaching at all in their entire schooling. When teachers speak to them, it is only to command, correct, warn, threaten, or blame.

Anyway, children don't need, don't want, and couldn't stand six hours of teaching a day, even if parents wanted to do that much. To help them find out about the world doesn't take that much adult input. Most of what they need, parents have been giving them since they were born. As I have said, they need access. They need a chance, sometimes, for honest, serious, unhurried talk; or sometimes, for joking, play, and foolishness; or sometimes, for tenderness, sympathy, and comfort. They need, much of the time, to share your life, or at least, not to feel shut out of it; in short, to go some of the places you go, to see and do some of the things that interest you, to get to know some of your friends, to find out what you did when you were little and before they were born. They need to have their questions answered, or at least heard and attended to (if you don't know, say "I don't know.") They need to know more and more adults whose main work in life is not taking care of kids. They need some friends their own age, but not dozens of them; two or three, at most half a dozen, is as many real friends as any child can have at one time. Perhaps above all, they need a lot of privacy, solitude, calm times when there's nothing to do.

Schools rarely provide any of these, and even if radically changed, never could provide most of them. But the average parent, family, circle of friends, neighborhood, and community can and do provide all of these things, perhaps not as well as they once did or might again, but well enough. People do not need a Ph.D. or some kind of certificate to help their children find their way into the world.

How are children going to learn what they need to know?

About this, a parent wrote:

. . . During his early years, my wife and I and a couple of friends taught him all he wanted to know, and if we didn't know it, which usually was the case, it was even better, for we all learned together. Example: at 7, he saw the periodic table of elements, wanted to learn atoms and chemistry and physics. I had forgotten how to balance an equation, but I went out and bought a college textbook on the subject, a history of discovery of the elements, and some model atoms, and in the next month we went off into a tangent of learning in which somehow we both learned college-level science. He has never returned to the subject, but to this day retains every bit of it because it came at a moment in development and fantasy that was meaningful to him [author's emphasis].

Of course, a child may not know what he may need to know in ten years (who does?), but he knows, and much better than anyone else, what he wants and needs to know right now, what his mind is ready and hungry for. If we help him, or just allow him, to learn that, he will remember it, use it, build on it. If we try to make him learn something else that we think is more important, the chances are that he won't learn it, or will learn very little of it, that he will soon forget most of what he learned, and—what is worst of all—will before long lose most of his appetite for learning anything.

Other parents have asked me similar questions, and to one I wrote:

. . . With respect to your question, about how a parent could teach something like chemistry, there seem to be a number of possibilities, all of which people have actually done in one place or another. (1) The parent finds a textbook(s), materials, etc., and parent and child learn the stuff together. (2) The parent gets the above for the child, and the child learns it alone. (3) The parent or the child finds someone else who knows this material, perhaps a friend or neighbor, perhaps a teacher in some school or even college, and learns from them.

One mother wrote me some particularly challenging questions, to which I gave these answers:

My greatest concern is that I don't want to slant my children's view of life all through "mother-colored " glasses . . .

If you mean, determine your children's view of life, you couldn't do it even if you wanted to. You are an influence on your children, and an important one, but by no means the only one, or even the only important one. How they later see the world is going to be determined by a great many things, many of them probably not to your liking, and most of them out of your control. On the other hand, it would be impossible, even if you wanted to, not to have some influence on your children's view of life.

I also wonder if I can have the thoroughness, the follow-through demanded, the patience, and the continuing enthusiasm for the diversity of interests they will undoubtedly have.

Well, who in any school would have more, or even as much? I was a good student in the "best" schools, and very few adults there were even slightly concerned with my interests. Beyond that, you may expect too much of yourself. Your children's learning is not all going to come from you, but from them, and their interaction with the world around them, which of course includes you. You do not have to know everything they want to know, or be interested in everything they are interested in. As for patience, maybe you won't have enough at first; like many home-teaching parents, you may start by trying to do too much, know too much, control too much. But like the rest, you will learn, from experience mostly, to trust your children.

Most unschoolers seem to live on farms growing their own vegetables (which I'd like) or have unique life-styles in urban areas, and heavy father participation in children's education. What about suburbanites with modern-convenienced homes and fathers who work for a company 10 to 12 hours a day away from home? What differences will this make? Will unschooling work as well?

Well enough. You and your children will have to find out as you go along what differences they make, and deal with them as best you can. Once, people said that the suburbs were the best of all possible worlds in which to bring up children; now it is the fashion to say they are the worst. Both views are exaggerated. In city, country, or suburb, there is more than enough to give young people an interesting world to grow up in, plenty of food for thought and action. You don't have to have every resource for your children, and if you did, they wouldn't have enough time to make use of all of them. As for the father's involvement, it can certainly be helpful, but it is not crucial. Some of the most successful unschoolers we know of are single mothers.

What if the children want to go to school?

This is a hard question. There is more than one good answer to it, and these often conflict. Parents could argue, and some do, that since they believe that school can and probably will do their children deep and lasting harm, they have as much right to keep them out, even if they want to go, as they would to tell them they could not play on a pile of radioactive waste. This argument seems more weighty in the case of younger children, who could not be expected to understand how school might hurt them. If somewhat older children said determinedly and often, and for good reasons, that they really wanted to go to school, I would tend to say, let them go. How much older? What are good reasons? I don't know. A bad reason might be, "The other kids tell me that at school lunch you can have chocolate milk."

I'm concerned that someone might be eager to take us to court and take away our children.

The schools have in a number of cases tried - shamefully - to take children away from unschooling parents. I think there are legal counters to this, strategies that would make it highly unlikely that a court would take such action. And if worse came to worst, and a court said, "Put your children back in school or we'll take them away," you can always put them back in while you plan what to do next - which might simply be to move to another state or even school or judicial district.

I don't want to feel I'm sheltering my children or running away from adversity.

Why not? It is your right, and your proper business, as parents, to shelter your children and protect them from adversity, at least as much as you can. Many of the world's children are starved or malnourished, but you would not starve your children so that they would know what this was like. You would not let your children play in the middle of a street full of high-speed traffic. Your business is, as far as you can, to help them realize their human potential, and to that end you put as much as you can of good into their lives, and keep out as much as you can of bad. If you think - as you do - that school is bad, then it is clear what you should do.

I value their learning how to handle challenges or problems . . .

There will be plenty of these. Growing up was probably never easy, and it is particularly hard in a world as anxious, confused, and fear-ridden as ours. To learn to know oneself, and to find a life worth living and work worth doing, is problem and challenge enough, without having to waste time on the fake and unworthy challenges of school—pleasing the teacher, staying out of trouble, fitting in with the gang, being popular, doing what everyone else does.

Will they have the opportunity to overcome or do things that they think they don't want to do?

I'm not sure what this question means. If it means, will unschooled children know what it is to have to do difficult and demanding things in order to reach goals they have set for themselves, I would say, yes, life is full of such requirements. But this is not at all the same thing as doing something, and in the case of school usually something stupid and boring, simply because someone else tells you you'll be punished if you don't. Whether children resist such demands or yield to them, it is bad for them. Struggling with the inherent difficulties of a chosen or inescapable task builds character; merely submitting to superior force destroys it.

[PF, written in 2003] To these important questions one might add an important issue in today's economic climate.

Can two-income families homeschool?

My wife and I both work, and through the years we've found that we can arrange out schedules to accomodate homeschooling. Until recently, I would work at the office or work from home, usually form 9 A.M. to 5 P.M., and Day worked afternoons or evenings; this suited Day's theatrical lighting career with my daily business hours. Now Day works during the days teaching in public school while I work from home and do more of the driving and helping with the girls.

When our children were very young, and Day and I worked together at Holt Associates, they spent quite a bit of time in the office with us, particualrly when there were other children around them to play with. Our oldest daughter, Lauren, now sixteen, loved the office as a toddler. After "mom" and "dad," the next word she learned was "mail," which wasn't surprising as we spent so much time talking about "the mail" at work! Now, our daughters are involved in all sorts of activities of their own, and between those activities and the time they spend with friends, neighbors, relatives, and paid babysitters, they aren't with us at work as much.

One of the first things we noticed as our children got older was that they became increasingly involved in their own activities. There was less of a need to think of having someone "watch" them all the time and more of a need to think about scheduling. For instance, when Lauren went to gymnastics classes or when the homeschool drama club holds a rehearsal, it doesn't mean my wife and I need to be there, too. We're not the only ones involved in our children's homeschooling, and that has benefits for us as parents, as well as for our children. We don't let our kids do gym or drama in order to give us childcare while we work, but rather because this type of varied life is what homeschooling is for us. Parents can gently encourage a child's growth from dependence to independence as young adults; when kids are older they are often more able to get around on their own, to be by themselves at home or the library, to work with other adults. Try not to think of homeschooling in terms of your being home all day or needing parental supervision every minute, because homeschooling naturally encompasses many different activities, as I've described.

Some two-income families deliberately work split shifts (one works days, the other nights), work only during evenings and weekends, or have one partner work at home. The book The Four-thirds Solution: Solving the Childcare Crisis in America Today by Stanley Greenspan shows how two working parents can each work two-thirds of the time to free up time that they can spend with their children. The creativity and resourcefulness of people who want to homeschool is amazing—mothers on welfare as well as wealthy celebrities homeschool: If you want to, you can find a way.

To get a firsthand overview of what homeschooling can be like, read some of the recommended books in the back of this book. But to get a true feel for what homeschooling can be like for your family I strongly urge you to attend a homeschooling conference or support group meeting in your area; you may need to try several sources before you find one that suits your specific needs of homeschooling, but it will be well worth your effort. No only will get the latest information about homeschooling issues and events in your local area, you may also find kindred spirits as well as potential friends for your children.

Another question I am often asked is:

Can families with children who have special needs homeschool?

Not only can such families homeschool, they have also found that their special-needs children can flourish in home school. Homeschooling provides lots of one-on-one attention; lots of time to accomplish tasks other children can finish more quickly; and lots of opportunities to try using various therapies or medication if the one the child is currently using fail. Some school make a big deal about the lack of specialized training a parent may have for taking care of a special-needs child, sometimes unreasonably so. One parent I helped to get her special-needs child out of a well-regarded school program was a certified special-education teacher herself, and she was being told she couldn't provide her daughter with all the care she needed! This mom not only succeeded in homeschooling her special-needs daughter, but she feels their lives are better now that they are working so closely together.

This is a common reason why special-needs families decide to homeschool: They become worn out from their repeated attempts to get the services and attention their child needed and decide while they're waiting for the typical, unsatisfactory responses they could be working with their child themselves. Wendy Renish, who homeschools a child with autism and pervasive development disorder, wrote to Growing Without Schooling:

With all the problems we were having getting her the right services in school, and spending time helping her to get ready for school, helping her with her homework, and helping her with social issues, we had no time for the one-on-one work she really needed.

Derrick Simpson, a single parent in Illinois who adopted a special-needs child from Ethiopia, writes:

I fought the system for several years to give him speech therapy. They refused to do it. They thought he had no speech issues . . .

When parents hit these breaking points with the school system, homeschooling can be liberating as well as frightening. Parents may be choosing to homeschool not as a well-considered option but as a desperate measure made under enormous pressure in order to find a better situation for their child. Fortunately, support for these families is growing, as well as understanding by some medical professionals that parents can be much more involved with special-needs children than is commonly accepted. Wendy Renish writes:

We had met Dr. Stanley Greenspan, a psychiatrist from Bethesda, Maryland, and author of The Challenging Child. He's one of the leading child development specialists in the world, and he believes that through work, a child's autistic behavior can be changed. He has a program, similar to the mirroring we had done, called "floor time." He believes that parents play the major role in helping special-needs children; yes, you do need medical professionals for some things—Rosie needs help with allergies, a hearing impairment, and occupational therapy. When it comes to the behavior, these intensive one-on-one programs take so much time that most of the work has to be done by the parents.

Several books and groups about homeschooling and special needs are listed in the resource section at the end of this book, particularly Homeschooling the Child with ADD (or Other Special Needs).

PF 2013: I must add this fantastic, new resource for homeschooling special-needs children, and I hope to add it to a future print edition of Teach Your Own.

Cindy Gaddis, a homeschooling parent, writes a blog about homeschooling special-needs children:

The Right Side of Normal

Her book, The Right Side of Normal: Understanding and Honoring the Natural Learning Path for Right-Brained Children (2012), is totally accessible and useful for parents just getting started or who have experience with homeschoolng special-needs children. I reviewed the book on my blog here.

What Is Unschooling?

Here's a brief history, as I (Pat Farenga) understand it, of how John Holt coined this word and concept when he published it in Growing Without Schooling for the first time.

"Unschooled" is an old word. The Oxford English Dictionary cites its first use in 1594 and defines it:

    1. Uneducated, untaught. b.) Not educated at school; not made to attend school.

    2. Untrained, undisciplined. b.) Not affected or made artificial by education; natural, spontaneous.

    3. Not provided with a school.

Holt probably wanted to bring out the second, less popular meaning of the word (if he used a dictionary at all for coming up with it!), to indicate that being unschooled meant you learned in natural, spontaneous ways, as well as the third meaning (no school). However, just as Illich's use of the word "deschooling" has led people who hear the word without reading his book (Deschooling Society) to conclude Illich wanted to abolish all schools, so has Holt's use of the word "unschooling" led people to conclude, without reading Holt's work, that unschooling will create uneducated people. Indeed, as a writer who sought simplicity and clarity in his word choices, Holt moved away from using "unschooling" in his writing and work over the years and used "homeschooling" as the more generally understood term for learning without going to school. In the 1981 first edition of Teach Your Own, Holt approved this index entry: "Unschooling: see Home Schooling."

Unschooling is actually defined by Holt in GWS #2: "GWS will say ''unschooling" when we mean taking children out of school, and "deschooling" when we mean changing the laws to make schools non-compulsory and to take away from them their power to grade , rank , and label people, i.e., to make lasting , official, public judgments about them." However, Holt's precise definition often gets conflated with his general philosophy about how children learn and what adults can do to best help them, causing people to forget that Holt deliberately defined unschooling very inclusively.

I've been asked to define unschooling since 1981. The simple answer I learned from John is unschooling is NOT school. John Holt was tuned into popular cultureand during the 1970s there was a popular television commercial for a soft drink called 7-Up. The marketing hook for 7-Up was that it was "The Uncola"—clear to look at, refreshing to the palate—it was NOT a syrupy cola. When John was casting around for words to describe learning without going to school the Uncola campaign was in full swing and it could have influenced him.

Unschooling never caught on as Holt intended the word to, but throughout the next two decades unschooling increasingly became identified as a rubric for all of Holt's ideas and work.  In 2003, when I updated Teach Your Own, I attempted a concise definition based on the increased use of the word in media, parenting, and education circles since Holt died in 1985:

This is also known as interest driven, child-led, natural, organic, eclectic, or self-directed learning. Lately, the term "unschooling" has come to be associated with the type of homeschooling that doesn't use a fixed curriculum. When pressed, I define unschooling as allowing children as much freedom to learn in the world, as their parents can comfortably bear. The advantage of this method is that it doesn't require you, the parent, to become someone else—a professional teacher pouring knowledge into child-vessels on a planned basis. Instead you live and learn together, pursuing questions and interests as they arise and using conventional schooling on an "on demand" basis, if at all. This is the way we learn before going to school and the way we learn when we leave school and enter the world of work. So, for instance, a young child's interest in hot rods can lead him to a study of how the engine works (science), how and when the car was built (history and business), who built and designed the car (biography), etc. Certainly these interests can lead to reading texts, taking courses, or doing projects, but the important difference is that these activities were chosen and engaged in freely by the learner. They were not dictated to the learner through curricular mandate to be done at a specific time and place, though parents with a more hands-on approach to unschooling certainly can influence and guide their children's choices.
Unschooling, for lack of a better term (until people start to accept living as part and parcel of learning), is the natural way to learn. However, this does not mean unschoolers do not take traditional classes or use curricular materials when the student, or parents and children together, decide that this is how they want to do it. Learning to read or do quadratic equations are not "natural" processes, but unschoolers nonetheless learn them when it makes sense to them to do so, not because they have reached a certain age or are compelled to do so by arbitrary authority. Therefore it isn't unusual to find unschoolers who are barely eight-years-old studying astronomy or who are ten-years-old and just learning to read.
—From Teach Your Own: The John Holt Book of Homeschooling by John Holt and Patrick Farenga

Some unschoolers take exception with my definition because they feel it is confusing and will be used against children by parents who "can't bear" children's actual freedom. I think this is a willful misreading of my intent, which is to show that unschooling does not resemble school learning and that parents and children can learn and grow cooperatively. As Aaron Falbel wrote in The Legacy of John Holt, "John trusted parents to learn from their experience with their children. He didn’t say, 'If you’re going to call it unschooling, you’re going to have to do it my way.' He wanted them to figure out what was right for them, for their whole family."

Since Holt first used the word in 1977, unschooling has also been defined by some religious homeschoolers and educators as "child worship,"  or letting the children run the show, and so on. However, unschooling is not unparenting; freedom to learn is not license to do whatever you want. People find different ways and means to get comfortable with John Holt's ideas about children and learning and no one style of unschooling or parenting defines unschooling, as the following selection of books demonstrates. — PF (updated, 2013)
Homeschooling With Gentleness: A Catholic Discovers Unschooling (2004) by Suzie Andres
Homeschooling Our Children, Unschooling Ourselves (2002) by Alison MacKee
Christian Unschooling (2001) by Terri Brown with Elissa M. Wahl
The Unschooling Handbook by Mary Griffith (1998)
The Teenage Liberation Handbook (1998) by Grace Llewelyn
Real Lives: Eleven Teenagers Who Don't Go To School Tell Their Own Stories (2003) by Grace Llewelyn



Unschooling Blogs and Websites

There is an incredible variety of support for unschooling online and some writers have ideas that may not be helpful to you, though they might be to others. With that in mind, rather than act as a gatekeeper to maintain the purity of unschooling (whatever that might be!), I provide this inclusive, broad list to help you find the support you want for unschooling—namely, not doing school at home. This is just meant to be a starting point for your research, not an exhaustive resource. If you have suggestions for blogs and websites to add, please email them to me.

These are sites to inspire you to seek or create your own real-life activities, child-inspired fun, and camaraderie instead of striving for grades day after day.

African-American Unschoolers
"African-American Unschooling is THE Internet resource for African-American Homeschoolers with an Africentric approach to learning all the time. "

Akilah Richards
Akilah Richards "is an intersectional feminist writer with a keen focus on amplifying the spectrum of black and brown voices in the self-directed education (unschooling) movement."
A fantastic collection of articles and links curated by veteran homeschooler Lillian Jones.
A film maker (Schooling the World) and writer whose work and studies with indigenous people deeply inform her advocacy for "what the modern world has forgotten about children and learning."

Christian Unschooling
A simple site that describes in personal detail a family's growth into unschoolers.

City Kids Homeschooling
Kerry McDonald writes about learning with her three young children in urban settings, and brings her unique background as a corporate trainer, author, and education policy consultant.

Crunchy Domestic Goddess
Thought and wit about parenting and many other topics from an unschooling mother and environmental activist. 

The Daily Groove

Scott Noelle, a family counselor, writes: "When I realized that parents need daily reminders to change their way of thinking about children and parenting, The Daily Groove was born … I teach creative empowerment strategies that can transform your parenting and all your relationships. To keep it simple, we focus on four positive pathways to power: Partnership, Authenticity, Trust, and Heart."

Dayna Martin
Dayna writes about radical unschooling, her work as The UnNanny, and is the organizer for the Rethinking Everything conference.

Do Life Right
Lisa Cottrell-Bentley is a publisher, speaker, and unschooler who offers one on one e-mail counseling services for people striving to live a vegan lifestyle and/or an Unschooling Lifestyle. Her family has written a fiction series featuring homeschoolers, which is available at her site. 

Each One Thrives
Meredith Collins, a former editor of GWS, writes a fascinating blog about "what we can do for each child until school gets better—or in case it never does—so that every one thrives no matter what or when." Her thoughts about math are particularly helpful.

Free Range Learning
Laura Grace Weldon's website and book, Free Range Learning, will help ease your fears about letting your children learn naturally and introduce you to families and resources that advocate for a child's right to learn naturally.

I’m unschooled. Yes, I can write.
Idzie Desmarais is a 21 year old lifelong learner who lives in Montreal, Quebec and maintains this interesting blog about her life and learning.

Interest-Led Learning
Christina Pilkington writes about her family's exploration of the world through community-based learning. She also publishes a useful daily newsletter, The Interest Led Learning Daily.
News and information about the life and work of John Holt, self-directed learning, unschooling, and the complete collection of Growing Without Schooling magazine.

Learn in Freedom 
A great resource for "how to use your own initiative in learning, so you can use schools and teachers just when they are helpful to you, and voluntarily chosen by you."

Living Joyfully with Unschooling
Pam Laricchia, a Canadian unschooler, has many thoughtful posts and ideas about living and learning with children with unschooling as "more of a lifestyle than homeschooling method."

The Natural Child Project
Many articles and resources about compassionate parenting and natural learning.

Not Back To School Camp
Grace Llewellyn’s camp is a life changing and life affirming opportunity for many teenagers.

Radical Unschoolers Network
Support not just for unschooling, but for how to live an unconventional life.

Ideas and principles about unschooling that Dodd has developed.

Sue Patterson
A mother whose unschooled children are now adults writes thoughtfully on a variety of topics related to education and raising children. You can join the Unschooling Blog Carnival from her site.  

Nicholas Bergson-Shilcock, a life-long unschooler, lives in NY where he operates Hacker School.  

The Unschoolers Emporium
Books, recordings, and materials made by and for unschoolers.
Connected to Home Education Magazine, this site is devoted to support all unschoolers.

Unschooling Adventures
Blake Boles (author of Better Than College) provides international trips and retreats for people aged 14 to 22 and older.

Unschooling Catholics
Their site's tag line: "Where Catholicism and Unschooling meet."

Unschooling Circuit Riders 
This Yahoo group lists all the state-wide and larger unschooling conferences currently going on.

Amy Brougher Milstein's musings and descriptions about learning in Manhattan.

A long-time publisher and author about unschooling, self-directed learning, and green family living. Her blogs contain much wisdom and many resources. 

What To Do Instead of School 
Blake Boles' newest site provides daily inspiration "a fun, productive, and meaningful suggestion for what you can do with your time instead of (or in addition to) going to school or college."

Whole Family Learning
Kerry McDonald writes about unschooling, learning centers, and related education issues. Her latest book (due in 2019) is Unschooled: Raising Curious, Well-Educated Children Outside the Classroom.

Magazines about Unschooling


LifeLearning Magazine
Published by Wendy Priesnitz, an unschooling pioneer in Canada.

General Homeschooling Resources

Build Cool, Low Cost Toys at Arvind Gupta Toys
Arvind Gupta is a scientist, performer, toymaker, and education reformer. Be sure to visit the toy part of his site and scroll to the bottom to check out the science experiments. The whole web page tells, through pictures and minimal text, how to create some really interesting things that you and your children can use and play with. Not specifically for homeschoolers, but that's the point: the world is a giant learning environment already, we don't need to create special places or materials where only specially formulated learning occurs.

Best of Homeschooling
This site is jam-packed with good essays and information about homeschooling from all perspectives.
Online listings for tutors, classes, and other educational experiences, both local and national.

Diane Flynn Keith, author of Carschooling, operates this witty "online journal of homeschooling."

A to Z Home's Cool Homeschooling
Anne Zeiss’ wonderful creation. This is one of the friendliest homeschooling sites I know of, and one of the most extensive in terms of resources and free advice. The list of homeschooling laws and regulations is good, as is the list of state homeschooling support groups.
A commercial website with materials for sale. One of my favorites is a car magnet that reads: "Warning! Unsocialized homeschoolers on board!"

The resource page, linked above, is full of information to locate government, educational, and social assets (usually for little or no cost) that you can use as you need.

Against Corporal Punishment

Many educators and parents still seem to think that paddling is a time-tested, valid educational tool that is well-suited to our times: indeed, 19 states permit corporal punishment of students in school. These groups, some founded by homeschoolers, are good resources for finding gentler ways of nurturing good behavior in children. —PF
Norm Lee was an early homeschooling advocate and writer/practitioner about alternative energy, four-season gardening, and the back-to-the-land movement. He now operates this anti-corporal punishment site.
The website for EPOCH USA: End Physical Punishment of Children.
Parenting in Jesus' Footsteps has a nurturing, non-violent approach to living and learning with children.
Information about the needs and rights of children operated by Laurie Couture, author Instead of Medicating and Punishing.

Documentaries about Learning Without Going to Conventional Schools

Class Dismissed

In theaters starting October 15th, 2014. All across America, parents are becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the state of public education. The current state of our educational system & economy shines a spotlight on problems with traditional schools. Class Dismissed showcases a growing trend in alternative education strategies that are working for many families across America.

Grown Without Schooling

Peter Kowalke was unschooled as a child. Now an adult, he interviews 10 homeschoolers to find out how they managed to find work and to reflect on how homeschooling has shaped them.

Schooling the World

Writer/director Carol Black's poignant and insightful documentary about poor village children in India who leave their rural areas for schools in the big city and what happens to them and the people they leave behind. It also examines the growth and influence of worldwide compulsory schooling as domination justified by "manifest destiny."


Jason Marsh created three portraits of unschooling families, each one featuring different backgrounds and ages. Parents wondering if unschooled teens will get into college will be inspired by the young man whose passion for blacksmithing and other non-school interests help him gain admission to the University of CA–Berkeley.

The War on Kids

Cevin Soling's powerful examination of what life is like for students in public school today, what can be fixed, and what should be abolished.

We Have to Call it School

A documentary film about the Danish free school, Ny Lille Skole, produced by John Holt. The writer/director, Peggy Hughes, writes about the Danish school system and this film in her essay in The Legacy of John Holt



Research and Support for Growing Without Schooling

Unschooling/homeschooling is a great way to help children learn, but not everyone can, should, or wants to homeschool. However, it is pretty obvious that universal compulsory schooling inhibits different approaches to learning, limits teaching methods, and increases costs through ever-increasing demands for credentials and higher grades. For educationists, it appears the ultimate goal is to put us all in school and test us from womb to tomb, placing us in asociety where test scores decide our roles.  Here are research and alternatives from around the world to this scenario, with special attention to unschooling. —PF

Research Specifically About Unschooled Children

Hello, World!

Pattison, Harriet. Rethinking Learning to Read (Education Heretics Press, 2016) is the latest book to explore how homeschoolers learn to read using different schedules and techniques (leaving children alone to read is one!) than school permits.

The Journal of Unschooling and Alternative Learning published by the Schulich School of Education, Graduate Studies, Nipissing University, Ontario, Canada.

• Thomas, Alan and Harriet Pattison. How Children Learn at Home. (Continuum Books, 2007) . Covers informal education, autonomous, natural learning, and unschooling. In particular, How Children Learn at Home studies how being a child who learns to read at an older age than in school is not a problem, and confirms other research and observations about children who learn on different schedules than in school(see for instance, Raymond and Dorothy Moore, Better Late Than Early ).

• Another book by Dr. Alan Thomas, Educating Children at Home (Continuum, 2005) , explores research on older readers and homeschooling and finds no special learning issues among children who learn to read at older ages than they learn to read in school.

Unschooling Media: Participatory Practices among Progressive Homeschoolers by Vanessa Bertozzi.

• Though not specifically about unschooling, Sugata Mitra's "Hole in the Wall" experiments (the second and third video links that follow) have shown that, in the absence of supervision or formal teaching, children can teach themselves and each other anything if they have access to each other and a computer connected to the Internet. Mitra recently won the first TED prize—a million dollars—for his work (Feb. 2013), and he is encouraging people to join in his new project, Self-Organized Learning Environments (SOLE), which he will fund with the prize money. You can learn about his prize and join his new project here:

TED Prize and SOLE 

How Kids Teach Themselves

Child-Driven Education 

General Research About Homeschooling

Joseph Murphy. Homeschooling In America: Capturing and Assessing the Movement. (Corwin, 2012). Cites current studies about the growth, practices, challenges and successes of homeschooling. A thoughtful presentation about how and why homeschooling works and continues to grow in the United States.

The International Center for Home Education Research
ICHER exists to provide expert information and analysis regarding homeschooling research and to facilitate networking among researchers studying home-based learning.

Mitchell Stevens. Kingdom of Children: Culture and Controversy in the Homeschooling Movement (Princeton Univ. Press, 2003).  Interviews and analysis of homeschooling families and politics.

National Home Education Research Institute
Dr. Brian Ray founded the institute in 1990 and he continues to publish original research and promote homeschooling internationally.

Robert Kunzman. Write These Laws Upon Your Children: Inside the World of Christian Conservative Homeschooling. The author spent two years with six Christian homeschooling families and presents a nuanced portrait of their lives and motivations.

Milton Gaither. Homeschool: An American History (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008). Describes the origins of homeschooling with particular attention to its religious contexts. 

Government Studies About Homeschooling

Most researchers, as of 2013, put the number of homeschooled children in the United States to be at least 2 million.

1.77 Million Homeschooled Students in the United States in 2011–2012 

1.5 Million Homeschooled Students in the United States in 2007 

1.1 Million Homeschooled Students in the United States in 2003

Homeschooling in the United States, 1999

Self-Directed Learning Outcomes

Whether unschooled or learning independently, you will eventually be asked why you aren't in school learning from a teacher. Here are studies, historical evidence, and books about schools that strongly support self-directed learning, providing further evidence to doubtful parents that their children can learn on their own.

Superintendent Louis Benezet’s math experiment. He abolished math studies from the seventh grade down and had the children read, recite, and reason instead. When they learned math, they did very well.

The 8-Year Study by Wilford Aiken. A high-quality,  long-term study of the effects that attending an alternative high school had upon college success. Shows there are many paths for college success.

• Studies of adults who were homeschooled have been done by J. Gary Knowles, Brian Ray, and Julie Webb, (1989), The Outcomes of Home-Based Education: Employment and Other Issues, Educational Review, 41 (2).

Free to Learn, Peter Gray
Dr. Gray presents much evidence and research to support self-directed learning for all ages.

Summerhill School (UK)
Sudbury Valley School (US)

Jefferson County Open School (US)

Authors to Cite (in addition to John Holt)

Thomas Armstrong
Armstrong details the importance of allowing children time and space to play and figure things out in their own ways. He also describes how to use multiple intelligences in everyday practice, both at home and in school, and why we need to be extremely careful about labeling learning difficulties in exuberant children with the slippery concept of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).  Some of my favorite books of Armstrong's are:

John Taylor Gatto
Gatto, an award-winning New York City public school teacher, is highly skeptical of academia's claim that only education can level the playing field for the poor and others to participate in the fruits of our democratic republic. Gatto, citing lots of history and personal experience, has decided our schools are intentionally dumbing us down to accept whatever the captains of capitalism want to get from conventional schools. Gatto's writing will, at the least, make you rethink why school is, for so many people, an empty ritual. You can watch and listen to John's speech, Weapons of Mass Instruction, in its entirety to learn more about him and his work. Other books by John Taylor Gatto:

Peter Gray
Gray is a retired research professor of psychology at Boston College who now writes for Psychology Today. He has conducted and published research in comparative, evolutionary, developmental, and educational psychology; published articles on innovative teaching methods and alternative approaches to education. His current research and writing focuses primarily on children's natural ways of learning and the life-long value of play. His latest book is Free to Learn: : Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life (Basic Books, 2013).

Alfie Kohn
One of the best researchers and writers about how schools and parents can change their practices when they help children learn. Here are some of my favorite books by Alfie Kohn:

Chris Mercogliano
A founding teacher of the Albany Free School in upstate NY, Chris has started a blog dedicated to remodeling, not reforming, modern education. Chris' books include:

In addition to those already mentioned, here are some books about teachers and schools that learn without curriculum.

•   John Holt Bibliography
•    Free At Last, Dan Greenberg
•    The Way it Spozed To Be, Jim Herndon
•    The Open Classroom, Herb Kohl
•    The Lives of Children, George Dennison
•    Totto Chan: The Little Girl in the Window, Tetsuko Kutoyanagi
•    We Have To Call It School. A documentary film about Danish schools.
•    Organic Education: Teaching without Failure, Marietta Johnson

Educational Organizations that Support Unschooling

Please suggest groups and sites to add. Email suggestions to pat farenga at john holt 

United Kingdom

Personalized Education Now
A publication and website by Roland and Janet Meighan, founders of Education Heretics Press.

Education Heretics
A great source of publications and research that challenges the stale conventional wisdom that we are getting dumber and the world is getting more complicated, so we all need to be in school for as long as we can pay for it.

Informal Education
Devoted to the study of informal learning for adults and recent school graduates. One article specifically addresses homeschooling.


Creating learning societies, rebuilding communities, deschooling/unschooling in India. Some fascinating educational activism. Inspiring work.

The United States of America

The Alternative Education Resource Organization (AERO) is a non-profit organization founded in 1989 to advance learner-centered approaches to education.

Institute for Democratic Education in America wants to ensure that all young people can engage meaningfully with their education and gain the tools to build a just, democratic, and sustainable world.

The Innovative Educator
Lisa Nielsen, co-author of Teaching Generation Text, works in the NY State school system but promotes and explores all learning, whether it happens in school or out.

North Star: Self-Directed Learning for Teens
A learning center for teenagers who want an alternative to conventional high school that holds seminars in how to create a similar center in your neighborhood.

Student Liberation
This site is about school and the harm it inflicts. But it's also about life. A life of joy and excitement. A life of endless possiblities. A life that schools try to take away.

Audio and Videos of Grown Homeschoolers Talking About Their Experiences

Grown Homeschoolers Panels, 1997 (video).

Susannah Sheffer, editor of Growing Without Schooling magazine, moderates a panel of three grown homeschoolers (Tad Heuer, Amanda Bergson-Shilcock, and Mae Shell) at the 20th Anniversary conference for GWS in 1997 (in six parts). These young adults respond to questions about what it was like to be a homeschooler growing up, how they were socialized and interacted with their peers, how they decided to attend college or not, how they gained admission to college or found work, what they are doing now as adults, and they bring up even more interesting topics during their answers.

Part One

Part Two

Part Three

Part Four

Part Five

Part Six

Grown Homeschoolers Panel 2005 (audio only).

Panelists include homeschoolers who were in college, who just graduated, and who never attended. This panel was moderated by Sara-Beth Matilsky, a grown homeschooler who did not go to college and "did other things that homeschooling made possible." This was recorded at the Learning In Our Own Conference in Woburn, MA.

Profiles of Grown Unschoolers

A collection of interviews with adults who were unschooled by blogger/unschooler Idzie Desmarais from 2010.

April 9, 2014, Idzie Desmarais interviews grown unschooler C. Kennedy.

Peter Kowalke's website, The Unschooler Experiment, has a page of podcasts and some are interviews with grown homeschoolers. Peter is also the director of Grown Without Schooling, a documentary film that interviews grown homeschoolers.

Books and Research Studies about Grown Homeschoolers

Linda Dobson. Homeschooler’s Success Stories: 15 Adults and 12 Young People Share the Impact That Homeschooling Has Made on Their Lives. Prima, 2000.

Grace Llewelyn. Real Lives: Eleven Teenagers Who Don’t Go To School Tell Their Own Stories. Lowry House, 1993.

Studies of adults who were homeschooled have been done by J. Gary Knowles, Brian Ray, and Julie Webb in her article, The Outcomes of Home-Based Education: Employment and Other Issues, Educational Review, 41 (2).

Famous Homeschoolers

Huffington Post lists 18 successful adults who were homeschooled.

Legendary Learning by Jamie McMillin presents historical and biographical information about famous homeschoolers.

Self-Directed Learning Outcomes

The 8-Year Study by Wilford Aiken. A high-quality, long-term study of the effects that attending an alternative high school had upon college success. Shows there are many paths for college success.

Free to Learn, Peter Gray Dr. Gray presents much evidence and research to support self-directed learning for all ages, including stories of adults who were allowed to be self-directed learners.